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Prints 版畫


Prints are created from a single original surface, known technically as a matrix or plate. They are not only multipliable, but also easy to transport and exhibit. This has enabled printmaking to play an important role in spreading knowledge and culture. 是用「版」當媒介物,藉複製、技術的印刷所製作的作品。複數性、容易運送、攜帶及展示都是版畫/圖像藝術的特點,使同一張作品,可輕易跨越時空,在不同地區展示給人們觀賞。由此印藝/圖像藝術對文化及知識傳播有很大的貢獻。




Relief Printing 凸版畫


Ink is applied by a roller to the surface of a plate. Incised area that has been removed by carving tools does not receive ink and hence does not print. This technique is commonly used in linocuts, woodblock prints, cardboard prints and collographs. 版面凸出的圖像,刷上墨或著色,經過壓印或拓印,圖像轉印在紙上,這印製版畫作品的過程是謂凸版印製。
拓印、木刻油印、水印木刻、膠版、紙版、實物併貼版等都屬凸版畫。




Intaglio 凹版畫


A printmaking technique where ink is forced into the grooves or incisions on a plate. Any surplus ink is wiped off from the surface with tarlatan. The plate is then printed with dampened paper by an etching press. Etching, drypoint, aquatint, mezzotint and collograph are common intaglio prints. Drypoint: An image is created on plate surface by scratching with a hard, sharp metal (or diamond) point. When printed, the scratching leaves a burr that marks a soft velvety line on paper. Etching: The plate is covered with a layer of ground with acid-resistant substance. Images are then drawn on the grounded plate with carving tools. After immersing the plate into an acid bath, areas with grounding material carved out will be eaten away. The longer the plate is left in acid, the deeper the line will be. Mezzotint: This technique is known for its rich and subtle tonal effect. It is achieved by using a rocker to roughen the plate surface. Aquatint: An etching technique to create tones. First dusted with rosin, a plate is cured with heat and then put into an acid bath. The acid etches around the ground to create a “dotty” pitted surface. The ink stays in the pitted “dots” when the plate is inked and wiped. The plate is then printed with an etching press. Tones on print vary according to the densities of the pitted ‘dots’.
凹版畫是使用推刀在銅版上圖像,並將油墨滲進凹陷的線條,抹去多餘的油墨,然後舖紙,施印,這就是最基本的凹版畫。凹版畫多用是銅版印製,故又稱銅版畫,蝕刻版畫。
直刻法:直接在版面上刻畫圖像。 蝕刻法:以黃蠟、松香、瀝青製成防腐劑塗上版面,形成一層防腐膜。用刻針在版面上作畫,然後放在酸液中腐蝕。圖像被腐蝕後成凹線條,腐蝕時間越長,線條也越深。 美柔汀:利用搖刀創造出細密的色調變化。 飛塵法:利用松香粉的抗酸性、受熱後黏附在銅版上的特點,經腐蝕後,印後的版畫,有由細點組成的畫面和色塊,使圖像調子變化更細膩。




Lithography 石版畫/平版畫


A technique which an image is drawn onto limestone or a treated aluminum plate with lithographic crayon or a greasy ink called tusche. This printing relies on the repulsive properties of water and grease. After applying acidified gum solution on the stone, image areas will be grease-receptive while non-printing areas will be water-receptive, so that undrawn area will repel ink and drawn area will be inked. The stone is then sponged with water and printed with a lithographic press. 經處理後的版面,石上空白部份則保持一層薄水膜。當在版面滾上了油墨之後,繪畫部份便可吸收油墨,空白部份則有水分而形成抗墨作用。平版畫隨科技發展,衍生出以輕便的膠片Prontoplate代替石版、鋁片、又有無水石版畫等新的技術,簡化了繁複的技術。再結合數碼圖像,大大增加石/平版畫的吸引力。




Screen printing 絲印版畫


Screen printing, also known as serigraphy, is a technique that uses a squeegee to squeeze ink through a framed gauze screen. Serigraphy has been widely used commercially since 19th century. The first photographic serigraphy was invented in the United States in 1915. A group of Pop Artists like Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein took serigraphy as their medium in the 60’s. 即孔版畫。自19世紀起絲網版畫在美國廣為應用,從而推動了絲網印藝技術的發展。
1915年,第一張用攝影製版的絲網版畫在美國誕生,使絲網版畫技術邁進了一大步。絲網印藝除了廣泛用於在商業上外,還是藝術家的創作媒介。60年代,一群普普藝術Pop Art的藝術家創作了大批絲網版畫,安迪沃荷Andy Warhol、Roy Lichtenstein等便是當中的表表者。




New media and Iris print 新媒體及虹彩版畫


Photographic and digital images have been widely applied in contemporary printmaking. For instance, Fung Ho-yin’s gum bichromate print is developed from photography. Steven Lam Woon-cheung’s and Norman de Brackinghe’s Iris prints are created with digital devices. Originated in the 90’s, Iris print was named after a printer manufactured by Iris Graphics, which was used for proofing in the printing industry. Xeroxgraphy or any computer generated image printed on archival paper is now called an Iris print. 今天的版畫藝術,不再囿於傳統的凸、凹、平和孔四大類。如馮浩然的光媒版畫-樹膠染印是與攝影掛;又或如林煥章和Norman de Brackinghe的虹彩版畫。虹彩版畫即數碼媒體印製成的版畫。Iris print源於90年代初,用由Iris Graphics出產的印刷機印成打稿。後成為版畫的一個媒介:所有用影印、鐳射打印、噴墨打印、熱印印在版畫紙上(Archival Paper)的版畫圖像藝術。




Print numbering and signing 作品簽署


After a print is pulled, the printmaker will mark the following information on the print with a pencil: 1. Edition: 1/10, 2/10…..10/10 (1 as the first impression, and 10 is the total number of prints in the edition) or T/P as Trail proof, A/P or E/A, AE (Epreuve d’Artiste) as Artist Proof. Artist Proof usually is 10-15% of the edition. For instance, in an edition of 20, 2 artist proofs will be printed. 2. Title 3. Year Completed 4. Signature The size of the edition is up to the printmaker. When an edition is completed, it is a practice for printmakers to destroy the plate. 版數:1/10, 2/10…..10/10(分母表示版數總印量,分子則是版畫的編號)或
a. 試作Trail Proof 簡寫T/P或
b. 版畫家印數: Artist Proof簡寫A/P、Epreuve d’Artiste(法語) 簡寫E/A或AE。版畫家印數通常是版數的10-15%,即版數有20張,便有2張的AP
2. 畫題
3. 製作年份
4. 作者簽名 版畫版數(Edition)的多寡,通常取決於版畫家。當一整套版Edition的印數完全印成時,版畫家將原版銷毀。





Wojtek London Art

M:   0044 7733443588

E:  wojtek78@hotmail.com

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